Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Learning How to Make (and Remember) GREAT Passwords


While there are lots of ways to protect your personal information online, your first line of defense is a a GREAT password. Unfortunately, many of us have outsourced the work of making a great password to Apple, who just prompts us with an impossible to remember string of symbols and letters. Then we further outsource the job of remembering these passwords to third parties, like LastPass …the password-storage company that got famously hacked last year. Yep, you read that right. Somehow hackers were able to get at the email addresses and encrypted master passwords, as well as the reminder words and phrases that users stored with LastPass to help users remember their master passwords.

Unfortunate events like these remind us how important it is for digital citizens to know how to make (and remember) their own GREAT passwords.

I teach students how to do this in Year 2 of Cyber Civics, at the end of a unit on "Privacy and Personal Information." They learn that a GREAT password should:

               Be at least 8 characters long.
               Include upper and lowercase letters, symbols, and numbers.
               Never include personal information.
               Never include the name of family members, friends, or pets.
               Never include sequences (such as abcde or 12345).
               Never include a dictionary word (unless letters are changed to a number or symbol).
               Be changed regularly (every six months).

But how do you remember the actual password?

This is where many of us struggle because, holy cow, who can remember even a master password? So students are taught to use "mnemonic," or memory device for this task. It works best if it's something they like. For example, one girl chose her favorite artist, Taylor Swift, as her mnemonic. With Swift in mind, she came up with this password:
  
SiO!1989

This password uses the first letter of each word of Swift's hit song, "Shake It Off" (employing both upper and lowercase letters), includes an exclamation point (because it's a great song), and ends with the album title (1989). So by thinking of Swift, this student came up with a GREAT password that successfully incorporates all seven rules, plus it should be easy for her to remember. Additionally, she will be encouraged to change it in six months when she has a new favorite artist, and well before any hacker can figure out what her GREAT password is.

I recently conducted this lesson again, and students came up with these 3 GREAT passwords. The rest of the class had to try to guess who each student's “mnemonic” (or famous person) was and, believe it or not, they were incredibly adept at this activity. Can you guess what famous person inspired these three passwords? (Find answers at bottom).







Today the only password manager we keep can safely rely on lies between our ears, in an unhackable vault that's free to use. Lets teach students how to put it to work.

Password Image courtesy of Stuart Miles at FreeDigitalPhotos.net





Friday, October 30, 2015

Media Literacy is C.R.A.P.

C.R.A.P. 

That’s what students see on the board at the start of their 8th grade Cyber Civics “Media Literacy” lessons. It gets their attention. Believe me.

I learned this handy acronym in the book, NetSmart: How to Thrive Online (2012) by Stanford University Professor, Howard Rheingold.  At the beginning of “Chapter 2: Crap Detection 101: How to Find What You Need to Know, and How to Decide if its True,” Rheingold quotes Hemingway,

Every man should have built-in automatic 
crap detector operating inside him.
-Ernest Hemingway, 1965

This is the essence (if you can actually consider CRAP an essence) of "media literacy." Like its sister terms—digital literacy, digital citizenship, information literacy--“media literacy” isn’t well understood. You’ll find a detailed definition and description of this 21st century skill on the NAMLE (National Association of Media Literacy Education) website. On CyberWise, our Media Literacy Hub provides a load of “media literacy” resources and information, as well as our short definition,

Media Literacy is knowing how to critically 
consume and produce media messages.

But boring terms and definitions aside, how can we make “media literacy” matter to kids? Tell them it’s C.R.A.P.!

Kids today are bombarded with media messages, via their smartphones, computers, tablets, television, and more. In this newly networked world, anyone, anywhere can produce and publish just about anything and thus be viewed as an instant expert. It’s hard to cut through the, well, crap. That’s where Rheingold’s handy acronym comes in. It helps, no actually it is ESSENTIAL, to give kids the tools to accurately assess online information. That’s why I teach them to give online information Rheingold’s four-part test:

Currency -
          -How recent is this information?
          -How recently has the website been updated?

Reliability
          -What kind of information is included in the resource?
          -Does the creator provide references or sources for data? Or quotations?

  Authority          
          -Who is the creator or author? What are their credentials?
          -Who is the publisher or sponsor? Are they reputable? 
            
Purpose/Point of View -
          - Is this fact or opinion? Is it biased?
          - Is the creator/author trying to sell you something?


-Howard Rheingold, "Net Smart: How To Thrive Online"

In Cyber Civics we treat this as a two-part lesson, applying C.R.A.P. Detection skills to a host of websites that students are asked to evaluate using the four points above. We revisit the C.R.A.P. test throughout the year, applying it to all the media messages we evaluate-- from gender and race stereotypes, to political campaigns (a wealth of crap there), to doctored photos, and much more.  

Last year I even overheard one student recommending to her mother to use the C.R.A.P. test to evaluate a questionable email she'd received from a banker in Nigeria.

So in honor of this week--National Media Literacy Week--let's all start talking about C.R.A.P. Because sometimes it takes a scatological reference to make media literacy matter. Thank you Rheingold!



In celebration of Media Literacy Week please download the lessons above and try them in your classroom (or share with a teacher!).

And don't forget to visit the CyberWise Media Literacy Hub to learn more!



Wednesday, October 14, 2015

Participating in the First-Ever Digital Citizenship Summit

Earlier this month the first-ever Digital Citizenship Summit took place in West Hartford, CT. It was an awesome gathering of digital citizenship educators (yes there is such a thing), supporters, and advocates. These are people who work tirelessly to make the Internet a kinder and safer place for our children. 

I was honored to participate as a presenter, sharing stories from the Cyber Civics classroom. Although it's not quite engaging without audio or a chance to participate in the actual activities, here is a copy of my presentation. 

Stay tuned for an exciting announcement about next year's conference!

Monday, August 31, 2015

When Schools Use Tech, They Need a Plan

Two years ago, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), the nation’s second largest school district, initiated a $1-billion plan to equip students with iPads. Within weeks, the program made headlines when hundreds of students started accessing social media sites, among other things. School official quickly recalled most of the devices and the debacle contributed to the departure of the superintendent and other top staff and led to an ongoing FBI investigation. 

We took this story to heart when designing the second year of Cyber Civics. Although, like the first year of the program, CyberCivics: Year 2 can be taught entirely without technology, many schools (like ours), use iPads for some of these “information literacy” lessons.

Therefore, the very first activity of Year 2 is the establishment of classroom agreements on the use of technology.

This is important, because today’s students spend a lot of time online, most of it away from the watchful eyes of parents and teachers. So any “rules” we set for them aren’t nearly as effective as “agreements” they make together. Kids like being the architects of the norms that rule their digital spaces.

I introduce this activity in my classes by talking to students about what happened in LAUSD; I tell them how the kids in L.A. “hacked” their iPads in only 10 days. The first question?

“What took them so long?”

Then we take a look at the Online Safety Cards offered by Good Digital Parenting. These cards set some terrific ground rules and are a great place to start. To solicit students’ input and, more importantly, their buy-in, we use these cards as a template to craft our own agreement between the students and the school. 

Working together in small groups, students suggest changes/additions to these “rules.” You'd be surprised, as I am every year, by the “what-if” scenarios students imagine. For example, my students want to know:

  • What if a device is broken or a screen is cracked? Who pays for it?
  • What about passwords? Security settings? Shouldn't the class set these up together as a learning activity?
  • Should there be rules about taking/posting photos of other students? What about privacy?
  • Should they open a class email account?
  • What about educational apps? Could there be an approval process for possible downloads?
  • What if/when a device goes home? Whose "rules" apply then?


And on and on.

The point is that while kids know an awful lot about how to get around our measures to “protect” them, they also know better than anyone else how to protect one another.

Last week an update on LAUSD’s technology “plan” ran in the L.A. Times. Here is an excerpt:
In that first year [of the iPad roll-out], students initially could have taken the iPads home; later, they couldn't. The next year, students were allowed to use the iPads only during a single class period, every other day. Last year, students didn't receive the devices until they were in the third month of school. 
Eventually, officials decided that schools need to demonstrate that they can make good use of the devices. Valley Academy was the first to get such a plan approved. As of last week, it was the only school with an approved plan, but other campuses are not far behind, said Bill Wherritt, a deputy director in the facilities division.

Hmmm, I’m thinking about lending some of our students out as consultants to LAUSD to help them with their plan. What do you think?



Tuesday, July 21, 2015

Digital Literacy Classes Raise Other Scores


Dr. Jane Karwoski of the Social Network Show recently invited me to talk to her about Cyber Civics, the middle school digital literacy program that equips students to be ethical and competent users of technology. We talked about a lot of topics, including the actual lessons, three tips for parents, and how these classes raise test scores. You can read about it here or listen to the entire podcast here.



Monday, November 3, 2014

A Funny Thing Happens When You Teach Media Literacy: Kids Get Smarter

Cross-Posted on Media Literacy Now.

The average 8- to 18-year old spends more time with media than they do with their parents or in school. They are assaulted by media messages nearly eight hours per day— 10 hours and 45 minutes if you account for multitasking — on smart phones, tablets, laptops, televisions, and computers. Much of this media comes at them unfiltered, as few gatekeepers (formally known as editors) check the veracity of things posted on the Internet (like this blog post) that can be written by just about anybody.

Yet little to no “media literacy” is being taught in the American school system.

It is being taught, however, at the school my kids attended. That’s because I asked the principal if I could teach “media literacy” as part of our Cyber Civics curriculum and he, surprisingly, said yes. That was five years ago and now our robust, three-year Cyber Civics program includes:

Digital Citizenship in 6th Grade
Media Literacy in 8th Grade

Students spend the entire 8th grade year—one hour per week—using critical thinking skills to evaluate media messages. After a primer class on C.R.A.P Detection, courtesy of Howard Rheingold (if you don’t know what this is read about it here), we dig in, critically evaluating and discussing images, video, music, text, and more. We grapple with stereotypes, extreme photoshopping, online scams, and urban legends. These students leave middle school equipped with critical evaluation skills that will help them in high school and beyond.

Even though media literacy and digital literacy is embedded in the new Common Core standards, few schools take the time to teach these skills, but they should. Not only because it’s the job of schools to pump out literate students, and today literacy encompasses a broad spectrum of media, but also because it makes students smarter.

At our school STAR test scores have risen consistently and significantly (the highest point gain in our district) since we started teaching Cyber Civics, despite the hour per week from “academic” time these classes take. When I tell fellow media literacy educators about these outcomes they are not surprised, because media literacy teaches critical thinking… and critical thinking makes kids smarter.

And it’s as simple as that.


Diana Graber is Co-founder of Cyberwise.org, where you can visit our Media Literacy Hub. She also created and teaches Cyber Civics™, learn about it here.

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Digital Literacy Has a Winning Weekend

(Cross-posted on iKeepSafe's Blog)
Project Tomorrow "Innovation in Education" Award Finalists

Last week in California, the 2014 Project Tomorrow Innovation in Education Awards were presented at the 21st Annual High-Tech Innovation Awards dinner reception. This high profile event, held in tandem with the O.C. Tech Alliance’s corporate awards, attracts over 300 business and community leaders each year. It recognizes corporations, schools, and individuals demonstrating innovative uses of science, math and technology in the classroom and community.


Our school, where I teach Cyber Civics (or, “digital literacy”), was a runner-up for this program and received a grant to expand it (the well deserved winner was the Jose Sepulveda Elementary School). Even though we didn’t win, we felt like winners nonetheless…simply because “digital literacy” was invited to the table. We were honored that Project Tomorrow and the OC Tech Alliance recognized the important contribution that digital literacy—knowing how to use digital tools wisely, competently, and safely— makes to the world of innovation.

Longtime digital literacy evangelist Glen Warren of McPherson Magnet School, who I met through working on iKeepSafe’s BE a PRO Digital Literacy program, was also a Project Tomorrow finalist. So for our mutual cause of digital literacy, it truly felt like a double-header.


Upon the heels of the Project Tomorrow gala, educators from several western states gathered for the Educating the Whole Child in the Digital Age Workshop at Journey School. They came to learn about our “innovative” three-year, middle school Cyber Civics program and how, and why, to take the lessons back to their own schools. I was honored to present alongside Waldorf educator, mentor, and cognitive development expert Patti Connolly, longtime media literacy educator Patty Page, and Cyber Safety Cop and online safety expert Deputy Clay Cranford.


Educators left the workshop enthused about sharing lessons on digital citizenship, information literacy, and media literacy with their own students, as one educator put it:


I’m inspired by the program, the brain research, and the critical thinking skills. I love the words cyber civics, ethical thinking, and social cognition. This workshop raised my awareness and I’m committed to adding this to the curriculum.
It was a great weekend, and as it turns out the real winners will be the students empowered with “innovative” digital literacy skills.